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Peristaltic Pumps

Peristaltic Pumps use rotating shoes pressed against special flexible tubing or hose to move the fluid through it. The tube is compressed at a number of points in contact with the rollers or shoes. The media is moved through the tube with each rotating motion. The individual components of peristaltic pumps include a pump head, drive, and tubing. Peristaltic pumps are also referred to as flexible member pumps, flexible tube pumps, dispensing pumps, or dosing pumps. The advantages of peristaltic pumps are that the components of the pump may be chosen when the integrity of the media is a requirement of the application since the fluid type does not contact any internal parts. Seals and valves are not needed as in other pumps. Many peristaltic pumps come with wash down capabilities and/or IP54 or IP55 ratings. Peristaltic pumps are also reversible and can be flushed to clean out the tubing or hose.

Peristaltic pumps are used in pharmaceutical, chemical, and food and beverage applications.Based upon the customers requirements, the tubing or hose and pump head configuration can be chosen. The pump head in peristaltic pumps can have a specified number of rollers. The tubing material and length can often be specified. The tubing in peristaltic pumps is often replaceable or disposable. Some manufacturers will give standard choices of materials for tubing or hose including neoprene, Silicon, and other polymer materials. Silicone rubber is often used in laboratory applications when abrasive and caustic fluids or gases are used. The inner diameter of the tubing is a consideration when working with highly viscous fluids since it will directly affect the flow rate. When choosing between peristaltic pumps, flow rate is proportional to the rotation of the rollers. This is mainly dependent upon the drive chosen for the peristaltic pump. The drive may be an integral part of the system or can be chosen based upon the flow rate requirements. Portable peristaltic pumps may be battery operated or hand operated. Other drive options may not necessarily be included with peristaltic pumps including variable speed, heavy duty, and hazardous duty drives.


Piston Pumps

Piston or Plunger Pumps are reciprocating pumps that use a plunger or piston to move media through a cylindrical chamber. The plunger or piston is actuated by a steam powered, pneumatic, hydraulic, or electric drive. Piston pumps and plunger pumps are also called well service or high viscosity pumps.Piston pumps and plunger pumps use a cylindrical mechanism to create a reciprocating motion along an axis, which then builds pressure in a cylinder or working barrel to force gas or fluid through the pump.

The pressure in the chamber actuates the valves at both the suction and discharge points. Plunger pumps are used in applications that could range from 70 to 2070 bars. Piston pumps are used in lower pressure applications. The volume of the fluid discharged is equal to the area of the plunger or piston. The capacity of the piston pumps and plunger pumps can be calculated with the area of the piston or plunger, the number of pistons or plungers, the displacement of the stroke, and the speed of the drive. The power from the drive is proportional to the capacity of the pump.Seals are an integral part of piston pumps and plunger pumps to separate the power fluid from the media that is being pumped.

A stuffing box or packing is used to seal the joint between the vessel where the media is transferred and the plunger or piston. A stuffing box may be composed of bushings, packing or seal rings, and a gland. Piston pumps and plunger pumps have a number of components that require the choice of materials based upon wear considerations and contact with the media type. Components may have a number of materials used including bronze, brass, steel, stainless steel, iron, nickel alloy, or other material. For example, piston pumps that function in general service or oil service applications may have an iron cylinder and piston with a steel piston rod. The plunger, discharge valves, and suction valves come in contact with the media type transferred; material choices should be considered based on the fluid transferred.

In power applications where continuous duty piston pumps and plunger pumps are needed, solid ceramic plungers may be used when in contact with water and oil, but may not be the appropriate choice for use with highly acidic media types. The difference between piston pumps and plunger pumps as compared to rotary piston pump is the actual mechanism used to transfer the fluid. The piston elements moving along an axis are called axial piston pumps. Rotary piston pumps typically have an internal rotating mechanism that moves the piston.

Plastic Pumps

Plastic Pumps are designed to move fluids that would corrode or damage other types of pumps. They provide broad chemical resistance and are less costly and lighter in weight than metal pumps. Disadvantages of plastic pumps include limited pressure ratings, reduced impact resistance, and narrower temperature ranges. Some plastic pumps are designed to move abrasive materials, acids, adhesives, chemicals, concrete and grout, coolants, hazardous materials, liquid metal, or lubricants. Other devices are rated for combustible, corrosive, high viscosity, or high temperature media.

Plastic pumps are also used to move gasoline, diesel fuel, and oil; ground water, potable water, salt water, and wastewater; sewage, sludge, slurry and ash slurry; gas and air; powders, solids, and rendering wastes; and a variety of liquids and liquids with solids. Plastic pumps are available with many features. Adjustable speed pumps can operate at speeds selected by an operator while continuous duty pumps maintain performance specifications at 100% duty cycle. Run dry capable pumps can operate without pumped fluid or external lubrication for an extended period of time.

Self-priming pumps are designed to create and maintain a vacuum level that is sufficient to draw fluid into the inlet without external assistance. Some utility pumps include a battery backup, pressure gauge, level control device, thermal overload protection, or suction. Other utility pumps are close-coupled, corrosion resistant, multi-stage, reversible, portable, plug-in, or sealless. Sanitary, hygienic, and wash down duty models are also available. Non-clog pumps can move sticky or stringy materials. Pumps with strainers or filters collect solids. With frame-mounted devices, the pump end is mounted on a bearing frame that is coupled to the motor.Important specifications for plastic pumps include maximum discharge flow, maximum discharge pressure, inlet size, discharge size, and media temperature. Power sources include alternating current (AC), direct current (DC), compressed air, gasoline, diesel fuel, hydraulic systems, natural gas, water, and solar energy. Pumps that do not include a power source typically provide a drive shaft for connection to a motor.

Manually powered pumps rely upon hand or foot power.Plastic pumps are used in a variety of commercial, industrial, municipal, and maritime applications. Examples include agriculture and horticulture, dairy farms, breweries and distilleries, construction, flood control, food service and food processing, power generation, and oil and gas production. Plastic pumps are also used in the aerospace and defense, automotive, machine tool, mining, medical, pharmaceutical, semiconductor, and paper industries. Devices for heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems are also available. Cryogenic pumps are rated for conditions where temperatures are low enough for gases to condense to become liquids or solids.

PCP or Progressing Cavity Pumps

PCP or Progressing Cavity Pumps are a type of rotary positive displacement pump designed to transfer fluid or media with suspended solids or slurries from the suction side of the pump to the discharge side of the pump from storage tanks or through pipelines. Advantages of progressing cavity pumps include moving viscous media at lower velocities. The pumps can be used in higher flow applications.

Progressing cavity pumps use a singular screw to handle fluids in a continuous flow. They may be single stage or multistage. The rotating assembly includes the stator, the drive, and bearing assembly. The pin joint or universal joint provides a seal to separate the pumped liquid or gas. The bearing assembly, shaft seal, and material may be chosen to fit the application. When choosing materials for progressing cavity pumps, the user must consider the type of liquid to be pumped and the components of the pump that are in contact with the fluid. Hygienic or corrosion resistant materials may be required for the stator. Neoprene, rubber, or plastics may be used. The housing or other pump materials may be stainless steel, iron, bronze, titanium, or other alloy. The stator or lobe is available in a number of geometries. Each cavity holds a certain volume; with each turn fluid is moved through the pump.

The capacity of progressing cavity pumps can be calculated based on the dimensions of the pump and the rotational speed of the rotor since a specific volume is transferred with each revolution. The number of curved areas on the stator will also affect the pulsation of the media moving through the pump. Generally, progressing cavity pumps provide a low pulsing flow. In water and wastewater treatment applications, untreated sewage, excess sludge, or concentrated slurries may be moved. The viscosity of the fluid transferred and the lift required may affect the speed and power required. A variable speed drive could be used in applications where slurries are moved from storage tanks to water supplies.Progressing cavity pumps can be used in sanitary and sterile applications such as pharmaceutical, chemical, and food processing applications.

One of the features may be an unsealed pin joint or universal joint that is manufactured to 3A standards. Progressing cavity pumps in these applications can be flushed or disassembled for easy cleaning.

Booster Pumps

Booster Pumps are used in applications where the normal system pressure is low and needs to be increased. Priming introduces fluid into the pumping chamber to create the pressure differential needed for pumping at a rated service. Self-priming pumps create and maintain a sufficient vacuum level to draw fluid into an inlet with no external assistance.

Typically, booster pumps are used in water systems or applications that have low contamination. They have a variety of commercial, municipal, and military applications and are used in a range of industries that includes aerospace, mining, and food processing. Booster pumps can transport different types of media. Some booster pumps use abrasive, acidic, corrosive, combustible, or hazardous materials. Others use wastewater, salt water, sewage, sludge, ash, or rendering wastes from food processing. Liquids, liquids with solids (slurry), and liquid metal are also used to increase system pressure. Depending on the application, other media used include gasoline, diesel fuel, oil, lubricants, chemicals, and coolants.Booster pumps are made of aluminum, brass, bronze, cast iron, plastic, or stainless steel. Power sources include AC or DC voltage; pneumatic or hydraulic systems; gasoline, diesel fuel, or natural gas; steam or water; and solar power. Booster pumps include a pump stator / rotor assembly that is mounted either vertically or horizontally, depending on the orientation of the media. Close-coupled pumps mount the pump end on the motor shaft. Frame-mounted pumps mount the pump end on a bearing frame that is coupled to the motor.

Booster pumps provide a variety of optional features. Some include thermal overload protection or are rated to run continuously. Others are self-priming or can operate without pumped fluid or external lubrication for an extended period of time. Multi-stage pumps move compressed fluid from an initial stage to successive chambers or stages of pressurization in order to generate higher levels of pressure than are possible with single- stage pumping. Typically, both single-stage and multi-stage pumps have a pressure gage. Some booster pumps are designed to function in special environments. For example, explosion-proof pumps enclose parts that could cause the transfer media or surrounding atmosphere to ignite. Hygienic pumps are fully sealed to eliminate leakage and contamination, and corrosion-resistant pumps are constructed of materials such as stainless steel. Non-clog pumps are configured to pump sticky or stringy materials that could clog other types of pumps. Washdown duty pumps are designed to perform better in wet environments, including food processing plants and dairies, as well as other high humidity areas. Sanitary pumps meet strict guidelines for sanitary process applications and include classifications and ratings such as FDA, USDA, and 3-A.

Sump Pumps

Sump Pumps are used in applications where excess water must be pumped away from a particular area. They generally sit in a basin or sump that collects this excess water, hence the name basin sump pump, or simply sump pump. While most people are familiar with sump pumps due to their high level of residential use, Sump Pumps in this context purely refers to the industrial styles. Sump pumps, in general, is a category that encompasses a number of styles of pumps that are used to pump out collected fluid. This classification includes bilge and ballast pumps, centrifugal pumps, cantilever pumps, sewage pump pumps, submersible sump pumps and utility pumps, among others. All of these styles may be driven by any of the following power sources, AC power, DC power, hydraulically actuation, or water powered sump pumps.

When selecting between the available styles of sump pumps, the most important specifications to consider include the size of the pump and the size of the sump pump pit into which it will be placed, as well as maximum discharge flow, maximum discharge pressure, discharge size, and media temperature. In general sump pumps are known for their reliability, as they are the first line of defense against the potential disasters associated flooding. Sometimes, however, sump pumps do break down and the resultant damage to equipment and the time and money lost due to clean-up and down-time can be staggering. To solve this problem, there are battery back-up sump pumps, which can function if the main power system breaks down. Back-up sump pumps are a wise choice if one thinks of the potential disasters.

Additionally, routine maintenance and sump pump repair schedules should be adhered to, to make sure that proper functionality is maintained. Periodic inspection of the sump pump pit should also be conducted to make sure that large solids or other items are not in a position that could clog the pump system and cause failure.

Syringe Pumps

Syringe Pumps are used to deliver precise amounts of fluid at specific time intervals. There are two main types of products: infusion pumps and withdrawal pumps. Infusion pumps are used to administer relatively small amounts of fluids at high, but controlled pressures. Withdrawal pumps are used to remove fluid samples automatically, typically in medical or pharmaceutical applications. Specifications for both types of syringe pumps include minimum and maximum discharge flow, syringe size, number of pumps per assembly, minimum and maximum step rate, accuracy, reproducibility, physical dimensions and weight.

Power sources, applications, features, media, and certifications are additional considerations.There are many different power sources for syringe pumps. Manual pumps are designed to be driven by hand or foot power. Pneumatic pumps use a compressed air source. Pump-only mechanisms and solar-powered products are also available. Electrically-powered syringe pumps use either direct current (DC) or alternating current (AC) waveforms. DC pumps typically operate with 6, 12, 24, or 32 VDC. AC pumps use single-phase or three-phase power, depending on the requirements of the application. Single-phase syringe pumps operate with 100, 115, 200, or 230 VAC.

Three-phase syringe pumps operate with 230 to 460 VAC, or 480 to 890 VAC. Syringe pumps differ in terms of applications and features. General-purpose products are not designed for a specific industry. Specialized pumps are rated for agricultural, cryogenic, dairy, food and beverage processing, maritime, medical, pharmaceutical, or semiconductor manufacturing applications. In terms of features, some syringe pumps are explosion proof, corrosion resistant, hygienic, portable, or run-dry capable. Others include a control panel, battery backup, power cord, pressure gauge, strainer or filter. Washdown duty pumps are designed to operate in wet environments such as food processing plants and dairies. Sanitary pumps meet guidelines established by regulatory agencies such as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

Suppliers of syringe pumps specify the media which pumps can handle and the certifications and approvals that products bear. Syringe pump media include acids, chemicals, coolants, combustible fluids, corrosive agents, gasoline or diesel fuel, non-liquid gas or air, ground water, hazardous materials, high viscosity fluids, liquid metal, oils, potable water, salt water, adhesives, and high temperature media. In terms of certifications, syringe pumps may bear the UL Mark and/or the CSA Mark. Underwriters Laboratories (UL) is a non-profit organization that tests components, systems, and materials according to its published standards for safety. Products that bear a CSA Mark have been tested by the Canadian Standards Association (CSA) and meet applicable standards for safety and/or performance.